A healthier way to vaccinate

Are vaccines really the best way to keep your pet protected from disease?  Rather than just relying on vaccines, it is important to look at what causes disease in the first place, and the natural healing response of the body.

A healthy immune system is key to optimal health.   The majority of the immune system resides in the intestinal tract, so keeping the gut lining healthy and maintaining a balanced microbiome is essential to preventing disease.  Proper nutrition is the most important element here, so feeding fresh, whole food ingredients is a must.  Additional support in the form of herbs and supplements may also provide value here, but this will vary from pet to pet.

Puppies and kittens get their initial disease protection from their mother’s milk in the form of antibodies she has generated.  The standard of care in veterinary medicine has been to start vaccinating at 6-8 weeks of age to build longer-term protection against disease.

The problem with vaccines, however, is that they are not given through a natural route of exposure.  This causes the immune system to sometimes react inappropriately, and often excessively,  causing inflammatory disease such as itching and diarrhea.  When given repeatedly, vaccines can lead to more serious autoimmune diseases, seizures and cancer. Over vaccinating at a young age can actually weaken the immune system, making it less effective at fighting disease in general.  This is the opposite of what we are trying to achieve.

The best way to grow a strong immune system is through natural exposure to disease.  Since we do not want our pets to get sick, what is the best alternative? Here is an outline of the protocol that I follow.  Of course, there may be modifications based on individual circumstances:

  1. Determine your pet’s vaccination history
  2. Determine the current level of immunity by doing a titer test.
  3. Consider your pet’s risk of exposure to the diseases that vaccines potentially protect against.
  4. Evaluate the overall health of your pet.  Only completely healthy pets should receive vaccinations.  In Colorado, a Rabies exemption is an option for pets with any form of disease.
  5. Check for upcoming or past medical treatments or procedures. Pets should never receive vaccines within 14 days of any anesthetic procedure.
  6. We consider legal requirements from your county and state, plus requirements from facilities such as daycare, grooming, and boarding

Based on the above, we will determine if vaccines are indicated.  If so, we implement the following safeguards:

  1. Only use single component (monovalent) vaccines
  2. Only give one vaccine at a time
  3. Do not vaccinate prior to 10 weeks of age
  4. Use titers to determine if your pet has responded to the vaccine and to monitor lasting immunity.
  5. Use Rabies exemptions for sick pets
  6. Understand the rules and regulations in your area regarding Rabies.
  7. Use supportive measures such as homeopathics to minimize vaccine side effects
  8. Assure that your pet is on an appropriate diet and life style to establish an appropriate immune response.

I have seen puppies, vaccinated at 10-12 weeks of age using this protocol, and followed with titer testing maintain a healthy immunity into their adult years.  This is with only one set of vaccines.  In my opinion, this is a HUGE advance in disease prevention – we are benefiting from the immunity provided by the vaccine without causing additional side effects.

Vaccines are not benign medicine, and over vaccinating can, indeed, cause harm to your pet.  Consider your pet’s risk and use only those vaccines that are indicated.  Remember that a strong immune system will be able to fight disease on its own, without the help of vaccines.

Choosing the best diet – know what you are feeding

Do you know what your pet is really eating?  It is so important these days to look beyond the marketing hype and actually read the ingredient list – you may be shocked at what you see!

Here is an example of the ingredients in a typical grocery store food:
CORN, SOYBEAN MEAL, BEEF & BONE MEAL, WHOLE WHEAT, ANIMAL FAT (BHA USED AS PRESERVATIVE), CORN SYRUP, WHEAT MIDDLINGS, WATER SUFFICIENT FOR PROCESSING, ANIMAL DIGEST (SOURCE OF CHICKEN FLAVOR), PROPYLENE GLYCOL, SALT, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, POTASSIUM CHLORIDE, PEAS, CARAMEL COLOR, SORBIC ACID (USED AS A PRESERVATIVE), CHOLINE CHLORIDE, SODIUM CARBONATE, MINERALS (FERROUS SULFATE, ZINC OXIDE, MANGANOUS OXIDE, COPPER SULFATE, CALCIUM IODATE, SODIUM SELENITE), VITAMINS (VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENT, NIACIN, D-CALCIUM PANTOTHENATE, VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENT, RIBOFLAVIN SUPPLEMENT, THIAMINE MONONITRATE, VITAMIN D3 SUPPLEMENT, VITAMIN B12 SUPPLEMENT, PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE, FOLIC ACID, BIOTIN), DL-METHIONINE, CALCIUM SULFATE, CARROTS, GREEN BEANS, WHEAT FLOUR, TITANIUM DIOXIDE (COLOR), YELLOW 5, YELLOW 6, RED 40, BHA (USED AS A PRESERVATIVE), BLUE 1.

Notice that this diet is primarily grain with a bit of meat flavoring. Five of the ingredients are actually the colors red, yellow, and blue – do you think your dog really cares what color the food is? This is all part of the marketing game.  There are a few vegetables and a whole bunch of synthetic vitamins and minerals.

This one is from a ‘better’ dry food:
Chicken Meal, Millet, Chicken Fat (preserved with Mixed Tocopherols), Pumpkin Seed, Yeast Culture, Spray Dried Chicken Liver, Dried Egg Product, Alfalfa Nutrient Concentrate, Montmorillonite Clay, Dried Kelp, Spray Dried Porcine Plasma, Dried Tomato, Almonds, Dried Chicory Root, Dried Carrot, Dried Apple, Menhaden Fish Meal, Dried Pumpkin, Dried Apricot, Dried Blueberry, Dried Spinach, Dried Broccoli, Dried Cranberry, Parsley, Dried Artichoke, Rosemary, Dried Mushroom, Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus Fermentation Product, Dried Lactobacillus casei Fermentation Product, Dried Bifidobacterium bifidium Fermentation Product, Dried Enterococcus faecium Fermentation Product, Dried Bacillus coagulans Fermentation Product, Dried Pineapple Extract, Dried Aspergillus niger Fermentation Extract, Dried Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract, Dried Trichoderma longibrachiatum Fermentation Extract

There are more real-food ingredients, but the second ingredient is millet, which is used as a binder and filler.  The first ingredient is chicken meal, so we really don’t know what is in that one.

Here is one from a ‘high-end’ dry food:
Deboned chicken, deboned turkey, chicken liver, chicken meal, catfish meal, turkey giblets, whole red lentils, whole pinto beans, pollock meal, chicken fat, whole green lentils, whole green peas, whole chickpeas, whole blue catfish, whole eggs, rainbow trout, pollock oil, lentil fiber, natural chicken flavor, chicken cartilage, turkey cartilage, choline chloride, whole pumpkin, whole butternut squash, mixed tocopherols (preservative), dried kelp, zinc proteinate, kale, spinach, mustard greens, collard greens, turnip greens, whole carrots, whole apples, whole pears, freeze-dried chicken liver, freeze-dried turkey liver, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, niacin, thiamine mononitrate, copper proteinate, chicory root, turmeric, sarsaparilla root, althea root, rosehips, juniper berries, dried lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product, dried bifidobacterium animalis fermentation product, dried lactobacillus casei fermentation product.

There is more meat in this one, but also red lentils, pinto beans, lentil fiber, green lentils, green peas, and chickpeas.  None of these are necessary in the diet of a carnivore, and can, in fact cause disruption in the normal digestion and absorbtion of nutrients.

Here is the list from a balanced raw diet:

Free-Range Meat (74.58%): Chicken Meat, Chicken Necks  (including bone), Chicken Gizzards, Chicken Livers, and Chicken Hearts.

Organic Vegetables (24.64%): Yams, Romaine Lettuce, Carrots, Yellow Squash, Zucchini, Celery, and Parsley.

Special Nutrient Mix (0.78%): Organic Flaxseed Oil, Sea Salt, Inulin, Cod Liver Oil, Zinc Proteinate, Iron Proteinate, Copper Proteinate, Vitamin E, Manganese Proteinate, Thiamine Mononitrate, Iodine.

This list is primarily unprocessed, whole-food ingredients. There are a few supplements added to provide complete nutrition.

Look at the difference in these ingredient lists.  If you did not read them, you would have no idea what your pet was eating, and the difference is immense!

Here are some recommendations in choosing a food for your pet:

  1. The best diet will contain fresh whole foods with minimal processing.  This will include raw or lightly cooked products.
  2. The next best diet would be lightly processed such as dehydrated, freeze-dried, or oven-baked.  This type of processing will still lose nutrient value, but is more convenient and can be a good option to mix with some raw food in the diet.
  3. Canned food has the benefit of a higher moisture content, and does not typically contain the fillers that dry food does.  Still, read the ingredients carefully and I do not recommend feeding this as the only food type in the diet.
  4. Kibble is last on the list due to the level of processing that damages nutrients and can even cause toxicity.  Because of the need to hold the pieces together, there will always be some sort of carb or filler.  Although there is some variability in the quality of kibble ingredients, I do not recommend that any kibble constitute a majority of your pet’s diet.

 

Eliminating toxins

We live in a toxic world, and it is becoming more so all the time, and at an alarming rate. No matter how hard we try to avoid exposure to toxins, it is impossible to avoid certain chemicals and carcinogens completely. In this two-part post, we will first address avoiding identifying and avoiding toxins, and in the second part, some specific steps to take after exposure.

Let’s start with diet.  Herbicides and pesticides are used extensively in our food supply; even foods that are grown organically can be cross-contaminated from crops that are sprayed with chemicals such as glyphosate.  In fact, the use has become so rampant that it has even been tested in the rainwater of certain areas. Constant vigilance is necessary to ensure the purity of your pet’s food supply, and yours as well.  Because dogs and cats are carnivores, they eat foods sourced from other animals.  It is therefore very important to investigate the sourcing of the foods you feed.  What the animals eat and how they are raised has a dramatic affect on the nutritional quality of the end product. If the feed is sprayed with chemicals that becomes part of the food product that you feed your pet.  Many food animals are fed diets that are solely designed to cause weight gain, but this can actually make them sick, causing the food produced to be nutritionally imbalanced.  For example, cattle raised on grass, which is their natural food, have a healthy balance of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids.  In contrast, cattle raised or finished on grain have a much higher omega 6 fraction which leads to inflammation when eaten.  This is the reason for much of the bad press that red meat has gotten over the years.  It is not the case that red meat is unhealthy; rather meat from cattle raised inappropriately is unhealthy.

In pet foods, even those that start with healthy ingredients can become toxic due to over processing.  Processing at high temperatures or pressures not only destroys vital nutrients, but can denature some proteins and fats causing them to become toxic.  Regulation in the pet food industry is lax at best, and nutritional standards are so weak that a fully inadequate and toxic diet will meet current standards.  The best recourse is to vote with your dollar and favor companies that produce well-sourced, minimally processed products and the stores that sell them.  The inquiry must be ongoing as companies frequently change their standards due to industry pressure.

Now let’s talk water.  Many toxins and pharmaceutical drugs have been tested in municipal water supplies.  The water is also treated with chlorine and fluoride, both of which are toxic.  Water alone could be toxic enough to cause cancer in pets.  The ideal water source is a natural spring, which also contains important minerals from the earth.  This is not a readily available in many areas, so a home filtration system is the next best option.  Reverse osmosis is the most complete type of filtration, but it will also remove minerals so these need to be added back in.  Toxins can also be absorbed through the skin, so also consider the water you use to bathe your pet.  Water from an outside spicket is just as toxic unless you have a private well.

Ok, we have covered what your pet eats and drinks; what about the dishes and utensils you are using?  Plastics contain many toxic chemicals, many of which are hormone disruptors that affect the function of the endocrine system.  Hormonal regulation is very important to the health of the body, and requires a delicate balance.  Once disrupted, the system can cause havoc with the entire body.  There is no such thing as a ‘safe’ plastic either.  BPA has been incriminated as toxic and many plastics are now labelled ‘BPA-free’ but this is only one chemical and most plastics contain others that are just as toxic.  To prevent exposure, use stainless steel, or ceramic that has been stained or glazed with non-toxic products.

Does your pet have toys?  The plastics used to make toys are also toxic, so favor natural materials.  Chew treats that are animal products must follow the same standards mentioned above for choosing food products.  How about bedding?  Many fabrics and stuffings are sprayed with chemicals such as flame retardants and anti-bacterial.  Your pet comes in direct contact with bedding, not to mention breathing in the fumes.  You will pay more for natural fabrics, but the cost is nothing compared to the financial and emotional cost of treating a disease such as cancer.

Inside your home, carpeting and other flooring, furniture, draperies, certain paints and drywall contain toxic chemicals.  Now, granted, you may not be able to change all of these things, but at least consider changing to less toxic options over time.

So far, we have been talking about the toxins present in physical materials.  What about some toxins that you can’t see?  Our culture has become addicted to electronic devices, all of which emit EMF’s, or electromagnetic frequencies that disrupt the health of cells in many parts of the body.  Under the microscope, very dramatic and rapid changes can be seen in red blood cells exposed to EMF.  Constant exposure from cell phones and towers; wifi; florescent lighting; smart meters can be devastating to your pet’s health and the risk continues to grow as we become more dependent on our electronic devices.  There will be an entire section on how to reduce the EMF exposure in your home, but a few things for starters are:

  1. Distance matters. Keep your cell phone and computer away from you and your pet’s body.
  2. Power down. Your modem power can be adjusted down to emit less EMF. Better yet, turn it off completely when not in use, especially at night when you are sleeping.  This is a valuable time for your body to regenerate and repair and it is imperative that EMF does not interfere with this process.
  3. If possible, put your cellphone in airplane mode while driving in your car. The phone emits more EMF as it searches for signal.
  4. Spend time outside contacting the earth directly or consider an earthing sheet or mat.

 

We have been talking about some changes that you can make to avoid toxins in your pet’s environment, and these are very important steps.  The reality is, however, that we cannot completely eliminate toxic exposure.  This is why an ongoing detox program is so important.  Once again, proper nutrition is key here as it gives the body the tools it needs to use its own detoxification system.  The liver and kidneys are the primary organs of detoxification and must be supported.  There are herbs that can help with this process, along with drinking plenty of filtered  or spring water.  We will address this further in part two of this post.

Do you know what is in a vaccination?

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Do you know what is really in the vaccines that are given to your pet?  Vaccines are used to build immunity against certain diseases and will contain a modified or killed form of the organism.  Vaccines also contain other ingredients that may cause adverse reactions in your pet.  All vaccines will have preservatives of some sort.  These are typically either antibiotics and/or thimerosal, which is a mercury based preservative.  Vaccine companies and the FDA will consider these substances safe if present in certain low percentages.  The problem is that you never know if your pet is going to react to even a small amount of a chemical preservative or antibiotic.

I recommend that you ask what is in the vaccine that is being given your pet.  I have also found that package inserts are not complete.  In an effort to investigate the ingredients in certain rabies vaccines, I found that the package insert only listed gentamycin as a preservative.  When I contacted the company asking about any other ingredients, I was sent the MSDS (material safety and data sheet ) that report the presence of neomycin(another antibiotic) and thimerosal.  You can ask to see the MSDS sheets or find them your self online if you know the brand of vaccine that is to be used on your pet.

Remember – vaccines are not benign, and can cause reactions including skin disease, vomiting and diarrhea, autoimmune disease, seizures and cancer.  You have the right to be informed and deserve full disclosure of what your pet is receiving.

GMO in Pet food

This is a very important reason to carefully scrutinize not only the ingredients in your pet’s food, but where they come from. What does GMO mean?  GMO stands for genetically modified organisms, and they are becoming more and more prevalent in our food supply every day.  Crops are modified to increase profit by increasing resistance to disease, or increasing production.  What is the problem with GMO?  Genetic engineering is done in such a way that the DNA of the plant is permanently altered.  The scary part is that very little testing is done to determine what effects the altered genetics will have on the person or animal ingesting the food.  The modified genes can be unstable and even incorporate into intestinal cells, modifying their DNA!

This can explain increases in diseases such as allergies, food sensitivities, autoimmune syndromes and cancer, even when supposedly ‘healthy’ foods are being consumed.   You can learn more details about the genetic modification of our food supply at: https://responsibletechnology.org/

What does this mean for your pet and how can you feed foods that are GMO free?  The answer is to read labels and ask questions of food producers.  Anything labelled organic will be GMO free by definition.  Avoid soybeans, canola, cottonseed, corn, and sugar from sugar beets.  These are the crops with the highest prevalence of GMO.  Remember too that there are many byproducts of these crops, especially corn, such as syrup, starch additives.  Many companies are now labeling their products that are GMO free.  You can find a more comprehensive shopping guide at http://nongmoshoppingguide.com/.

In general, fresh organic ingredients will provide the best chance of avoiding genetically engineered foods.  Companies that do not use genetically modified ingredients will typically make that obvious on their packaging.  Remember – pay attention, read labels and ask questions if labels are unclear.  The time you spend will be worth the health benefits to you and your pets.

When it is time to say good-bye

Our pets bring so much to our lives – love, companionship, joy, playfulness.  It is devastating to face the moment of truth when a beloved pet may be leaving our lives.  There are difficult decisions to make, finances to consider, and most importantly, we do not want our pet to suffer needlessly.  These decisions can be heart-wrenching, to say the least.

How do you decide how long to treat your pet, and with what?  Do you feel selfish by keeping your pet alive in order to avoid the loss?  There is often a dead end reached in allopathic medicine where ‘no more’ can be done.  In alternative medicine, however, there are many options to choose from regardless of your pet stage of life.

This is not to say that we can stop your pet from aging or stop the progression of disease, but there are definitely options that can improve your pet’s quality of life both mentally and physically.  These options include energy work, essential oils, acupuncture, massage, chiropractic care, homeopathy and animal communication.  Within each of these modalities, there are many options available to help your pet.

As you pet reached its ‘golden years’  seek out alternative therapies that you are comfortable and you will find great comfort for both you and your pet.

Summer bugs

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Summer Bugs

We are well into our summer weather and the question often arises – what do we need to do to protect our pets against bugs such as fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes (the carrier of heartworm disease)

The need to protect your pet is based on the risk of exposure to the bugs:

Fleas are often brought to your pet from other animals, including wildlife.  They will make your pet itch, and are visible, brown bugs that hop on and off your pet.  Fleas can live in your house and yard, making them difficult to get rid of.  There are several spot-on type flea preventatives that are applied once monthly – these are effective, but are also toxic as the insecticide is absorbed into your pet’s body.  There are natural sprays that can repel fleas but do not kill them.  I do not recommend using a flea preventative unless you have actually seen them on your pets.

Ticks typically live on the vegetation and drop on your pet as it walks by.  Ticks can spread diseases such as Lyme, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichia, and anaplasmosis.  These diseases are potentially serious and it is definitely worth checking your pets for ticks after it has been outside.  Many of the same insecticides that are used for fleas can also be used to kill ticks.  I recommend checking your pet for ticks and removing them as soon as you see them.  A simple tweezer attached to the tick just above the skin should remove it uneventfully.

Mosquitoes are the insect that spreads heartworm disease If your dog is exposed to lakes, ponds, or other pools of water, there will likely be some mosquito exposure during the summer months.  The heartworm larvae must go through a life-stage cycle in the mosquito in order to be able to infect your dog, and this transition requires a temperature of 57 degrees or higher for 30 consecutive days. Here in Colorado, we have cool nights, so the risk of heartworm disease is much lower.   In warmer climates, the risk is much higher.   There are natural repellents to keep mosquitos away from your dog, and regular heartworm testing is also a good idea to be sure that there has not been any exposure.

In Colorado, I recommend heartworm prevention only during the warm summer months of June, July, and August.  In my experience, finding a heartworm positive dog that lives in Colorado is extremely rare.  In other parts of the country, where mosquitoes are more prevalent and the temperatures are warmer, the risk will be much greater.  If you live in, or travel to other areas of the country, your dog should be on prevention for more of the year.

I recommend choosing your pet’s prevention based on its risk of exposure.  If you do not see the bugs, then there is no need to use potentially harmful pesticides.  If the problem is mild, you can try one of the natural repellent sprays.

Have a happy and hopefully bug-free summer!

Summer travel with pets

Summer is just about here, and many of us are planning our adventures for the season.  But what about the pets?  As an alternative to boarding or using a pet sitter, many pet parents choose to travel with their pets.  This can be a feasible option, but you will want to take some time to prepare first.  Here are some things to consider:

1. Before you decide to take your pet along on a trip – consider how you think it will handle the traveling.  Many pets get stressed when they are away from home and dealing with a constantly changing routine.  You may enjoy the peace of mind in having your pet accompany you on vacation, but does your pet feel the same?

2. Consider where you are going and what activities you will be doing – are they pet-friendly?  City trips will require your pet to be left alone in a strange place for hours at a time.  Your pet must be well house-broken and not prone to excessive barking.  Many National Parks do not allow pets in certain areas, and only a few have kennels in which to leave your pet as you enjoy exploring the park.

3. Remember the heat.  Even a 70 degree day can create excessive heat inside a vehicle and leaving your pet inside on a 90 degree day can be lethal.  Even with the windows cracked, most summer days will be too warm to leave your pet in the car. 

4. Things to take with you:

Water and food dishes

Food – or research stores along the way that sell the food your pet is used to.  A sudden diet change may bring on unwanted diarrhea or vomiting.

Water – keep a supply in the car so your pet can have a drink at any time

Extra leash in case you misplace one

5. Remember to stop every few hours to allow your pet to eliminate and stretch its legs.  Pets get stiff in the car just like we do.

6. If you are interested in having your pet transported for you, here is a link that may help:

http://www.petrelocation.com/frontpage/

7. This site will help you find pet-friendly lodging:

http://www.petswelcome.com/

Traveling with pets can be fun, just remember to be prepared so that you pet receives proper care during your journey.

Have a wonderful and safe summer!

Have a wonderful and safe summer with your pets.

Feeding your cat

There are 2 main ingredients that are essential in your cat’s diet:  1. Meat    2. Water

1.Cats are obligate carnivores.  This means that cats must eat a diet that is about 85% meat or they will not get the nutrients that they need.  Certain nutrients that are found in meat  meat can be synthesized internally by other species such as humans and even dogs, but not by cats.  For example, taurine is an essential amino acid that cats must have or can develop heart disease along with vision problems, poor coats, and low energy.

Nutrients such as taurine can be chemically synthesized and added into commercial diets, but there are many benefits to feed it from a natural source.  Every nutrient found in nature comes with ‘hidden’ benefits that aid its digestion, absolution, and utilization.  Chemical reproductions of nutrients may not be as compatible with your cat’s physiology and some of the benefits may be lost in the processing of the diet.

2. Cats should eat a diet that is 70% water and will likely be healthiest when they get moisture from their food rather than drinking it from a bowl.  Why?  Cats were originally desert animals, and there was not a lot of water around to drink.  Many cats, therefore, do not have a big enough thirst drive to drink what their body needs, especially if they are eating a kibble-type diet, which are typically about 10% moisture.  When eating a kibble diet, a cat must drink enough to make up for the moisture lacking in the food, along with some extra to meet their metabolic demands.  Many cats end up with kidney and bladder disease because they live their lives in a state of chronic dehydration.

Cats are also picky water drinkers.  Have you ever know a cat that will only drink out of a running faucet or a glass of water?  These cats are often the ones that do not take in enough water to stay healthy.

So now, what do you feed your cat?

Learn to read pet food labels so you are familiar with what you are feeding your cat.  A fresh(ideally raw), balanced commercial diet is the simplest way to feed your cat. See my post on reading ingredients.

You will likely need to experiment and find the texture and type of meat that your cat likes best, and it is a good idea to change the food around a bit.  Many cats will stop eating a certain food if it is fed for long enough.  Remember also that there is no guarantee that the pet food will remain the same – ingredients and processing methods typically change over time, and this may be the reason that your cat loses interest in a certain diet.

 

 

Which bones are safe to give dogs?

Bones can be a healthy addition to your dog’s diet,  providing entertainment, teeth cleaning, and a valuable source of calcium and phosphorus.  But which ones are safe? 

Here are a few simple tips:

1.  Never feed ANY cooked bone.  Cooked bones can splinter and fragment causing damage to the digestive tract.

2.  Long bones such as marrow bones and some knuckle bones are hard enough to crack some dog’s teeth. These are ok, but only allow your dog to chew on them for a few minutes at a time in order to minimize tooth damage.

3.  Soft bones such as chicken or turkey necks, chicken backs, legs, breasts, and wings, patellas (knee caps) and others that are cartilage are the best to feed, but must be fed RAW.  Raw chicken bones??  Yes!   My only caution is to introduce these raw treats gradually to allow your dog’s digestive tract to adapt.  The benefits of this type of bone are many:

     The raw meat that is attached to the bones provides a healthy source of protein.

     The bones are an excellent source of calcium and phosphorous 

     The cartilage provides the building blocks for sturdy joints

     There is no better toothbrush in the world – I have even seen this type of treat remove tartar from teeth – amazing!

Real bones can be a real treat for your dog.  Don’t let your pet miss out on this valuable addition to its diet!